The human brain is essentially what makes our species stand out from the rest on the planet. Evolutionary biologists explain that humans adapted our unique physical features in much the same ways as all other animals. But in one respect we completely out-did anything else: our brains. Brain size usually correlates with physical size. Mice have small brain; whales have large brains. Humans, however, break the mold. The size of our brains is drastically larger than what would be expected based on our body size. But it is the very size of our brain that has allowed us to thrive in the manner that we have.
Interestingly, our biggest strength, is also a vulnerability, particularly in our earliest stages. Historically, childbirth is one of the biggest health risks for women. That is in large part because of the challenges of delivering a child with a large head necessary to protect the brain. Evolutionarily, the human body developed with trade-offs, sacrificing an easier birth in exchange for a longer gestation period and larger brain in the infant.
Fortunately, we have made enormous strides over the years in improving birthing safety, drastically reducing the mortality rate for mothers and children. The availability of alternative birthing methods, like a cesarean section, can save lives and minimize injury when traditional vaginal births would otherwise cause harm. But that is not to say that the process is without risk, particularly when caregivers make mistakes. When that happens, affected families may be able to seek accountability via the civil justice system.